Cancer cells are cells that have started dividing uncontrollably due to mutation in the cell’s DNA. Once cancer cells start to accumulate in a location, they become a tumour.
A range of environmental, genetic and other factors have been indicated as causes of cancer. Damage to DNA is usually repaired by proteins of the DNA damage response. One such protein is p45 (also known as ‘the guardian of the genome’). Cancer progression can be graded and staged by visual assessment of the cancer cell’s differentiation compared to the cells they originated from. Cancer cells possess several features that make them hard to treat. Including: immune system evasion, self-stimulated growth and resistance of inhibitory factors and programmed cell death (apoptosis).